Research & Communication

Peer-reviewed publications

Milks, A., Lehmann, J., Böhner, U., Leder, D., Koddenberg, T., Sietz, M. Vogel, M., & Terberger, T. 2022. Wood technology: a Glossary and Code for analysis of archaeological wood from stone-tool cultures. OSF Preprints, x8m4j, ver. 7 peer- reviewed and recommended by Peer community in Archaeology. 0.31219/

S Lew-Levy, D Bombjaková, A Milks, F Kiabiya Ntamboudila, MA Kline, 2022. Costly teaching contributes to the acquisition of spear hunting skill among BaYaka forager adolescents. Proceedings of the Royal Society B 289 (1974), 20220164.

Milks, A.G. 2021. Yew wood, would you? An exploration of the selection of wood for Pleistocene spears. In Berihuete Azorin, M., Martin Seijo, M. López-Bultó, O., and Piqué, R. (Eds.) The Missing Woodland Resources. Advances in Archaeobotony, 6.

Milks, A., Lew-Levy, S., Lavi, N., Friesem, D. E., & Reckin, R. (2021). Hunter-gatherer children in the past: An archaeological review. Journal of Anthropological Archaeology, 64, 101369.

Lew-Levy, S., Milks, A., Kiyabiya, F., Broesch, T., Kline, M.A. (2021). BaYaka adolescents from the Republic of Congo nominate accessible adults as preferred spear hunting models. Current Anthropology, 62(5), pp.631-640.

Milks, A. 2020. A Review of Ethnographic Use of Wooden Spears and Implications for Pleistocene Hominin Hunting. Open Quaternary, 6: 12, pp. 1–20. DOI:

Lew-Levy, S., Milks, A., Lavi, N., Pope, S., Friesem, D. 2020. Where innovations flourish: an ethnographic and archaeological overview of hunter-gatherer learning contexts. Evolutionary Human Sciences, 2:1-23. DOI: 10.1017/ehs.2020.35

Milks, A. 2020. Book Review: Valentina Borgia and Emanuela Cristiani, eds. Palaeolithic Italy Advanced studies on early human adaptations in the Apennine Peninsula (Leiden: Sidestone Press,2018, 428 pp., pbk, ISBN 978-90-8890-583-4. In Archäologische Informationen.

Milks, A. 2019. Skills Shortage: A Critical Evaluation of the Use of Human Participants in Early Spear Experiments. EXARC, 2019/2.

Milks, A., Parker, D., Pope, M. 2019. External ballistics of Pleistocene hand-thrown spears: experimental performance data and implications for human evolution. Scientific Reports, 9:820.

Milks, A. 2018. Making an Impact. Nature: Ecology and Evolution, 2, 1057-1058. 

Milks, A., Champion, S., Cowper, E., Pope, M., Carr, D. 2016. Early spears as thrusting weapons Isolating force and impact velocities in human performance trials. Journal of Archaeological Science: Reports, 10, 191-203.   

Raw datasets (above paper) available here:

Milks, A., Dinnis, R., Pope, M. (2016) Morpho-metric Variability Of Early Gravettian Tanged “Font-Robert” Points, And Functional Implications. In Iovita, R., & Katsuhiro, S. (Eds.) Multidisciplinary Approaches to the Study of Stone Age Weaponry. New York: Springer. Chapter 9, 135-146.

Pope, M., Dinnis, R., Milks, A., Toms, P., Wells, C. 2013. A Middle Palaeolithic to Early Upper Palaeolithic succession from an open air site at Beedings, West Sussex. Quaternary International, 316, 14-26. 

TV and Media

Guest Contributor on BBC One’s Attenborough and the Mammoth Graveyard

Guest Contributor on CBC’s The Real Neanderthal, Nature of Things Series

Guest Posts

Nature Ecology and Evolution: Early Neanderthal spears: going the distance

The Conversation: Neanderthals: javelin athletes helped us show how effective they were at hunting with weapons

The Conversation: Why the Neanderthals may have been more sophisticated hunters than we thought – new study


Talks & Posters

The oldest weapons: revealing the secrets of the Schöningen Spears, Montagsvorträge lecture series


Poster, September 10-12, 2015 European Society of Human Evolution (ESHE), London ‘Human performance trials in spear thrusting and throwing: experiments into the mechanics and biomechanics of early weapon systems’

Poster: April 6-10 2016, Society for American Archaeology 81st Annual Meeting, Orlando, USA. ‘Middle Pleistocene ‘hunting lesions’: experimental approaches to an archaeological puzzle’

Professional profiles

Google Scholar profile

Researchgate profile

University of Reading web page

Orcid ID

Publons record

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